What is a child safety seat?

1. Introduction

child safety seat

is a kind of child safety seats designed specifically for children of different weight (or age), and installed in the car, can effectively improve the child restraint seat. European standards define mandatory implementation ECER44 / 03 are: a motor can be fixed to the vehicle, the seat belt assembly or a flexible member with ISOFIX interface adjustment mechanism appendixes child security system. In the case of car crash or sudden deceleration, it can reduce the punch pressure on children and children restrict the movement of the body so as to reduce the damage to them. Currently (2013) with reference to the main international testing standards ADAC test results. With the rapid increase in car ownership, although it has taken a variety of advanced technologies and practices, but child casualties caused by traffic accidents or injuries is much higher than any other cause of children. Therefore, the right to purchase and use of child safety seats is considered to be one of the most effective methods to prevent child injuries caused by traffic accidents.

2. History

appears after the Second World War car child safety seats, the rapid development of automotive technology, automotive become the main means of transport. Traffic safety attendant problems have become increasingly prominent, a variety of car safety devices one after another. Seat belt as the most traditional safety equipment, is designed for adults, not suitable for children. Because the bones of innocent children, when a vehicle collision, the body will quickly reduce speed dash forward due to huge inertia, this time across the side of the body of an adult seat belt may cause the child chest rib fractures, a broken collar bone and even choking hazard. Likewise, the airbag design is based on the protection of adults. Airbags burst open instantly generated a huge impact on children resulting in serious injury. According to the 1999 American Statistical data show that, due to the airbags burst open 150 of those deaths, mostly children.

child safety seat

The first child safety seat was born in 1963, it was designed and manufactured by the company Volvo, openHair design inspiration comes from the child safety seat spacecraft astronauts seats, the seats can withstand the enormous space capsule lifted off and landing force, so that the astronauts from harm. Volvo According to this principle, the concept of rear-facing child safety seat.

At first the child safety seat single structure, but after the ride through the protection of children, there was a five-point harness, but no side protection of children’s structure. Based on the survey data on children car accident, people come to realize the importance of protecting the side of child safety, child safety seats begin to continuous improvement in the child’s head, body and leg parts are added on both sides of a rebound care pad, back efforts to face more soft and comfortable, allowing a full range of protection for children. At the same time, to adapt to different child safety seat body ages have also emerged.

first child safety seat in Europe and other developed countries have been developed, especially since the 1980s, Europe and other countries have issued relevant regulations, mandatory child car child safety seats must be used when the car, car child safety seat was able to rapid development and popularization of products from foam products have gradually diversified development of new materials products.

By the early 2000s, in Europe, car child safety seat penetration rate is already very high, like riding a motorcycle helmet as natural needs, child safety seats and even a number of vehicle factory has become a must Preparation accessories. In China, the popularity of the child safety seat is still in its infancy.

3, classification

1 for newborns to 15 months of age (or weight infants between 2.2 kg -13 kg)

0-4 year-old safety seat safety seat is suitable for this (or babies weighing between 2.2 kg -13 kg) from newborns to 15 months of age. Such are generally equipped with a child safety seat can swing the bottom, and there are handles, can be used as a portable basket.

2, suitable for newborn to 4 years old child (or children weighing between 2.2 kg -18 kg)

The design also providesTwo functions: first, for newborn to 9 months of age, babies nine months and then changed to a 4-year-old child. Although this does not swing seat, and a mobile trolley function used in combination, but may be fixed to the vehicle and can be long-term use. If you want to save some money, then this is a good choice.

The seat particular attention on the use, newborn to 9 months of age need to reverse mounting seat 9 months to 4 years old newborns need to install a forward, but forward installation there are two necessary conditions: first, for children weighing more than 9 kg; second child can make up their own, both are indispensable.

child safety seat

3 for children under 1 year to 4 years of age (or children weighing between 9 kg -18 kg)

This kind of car seat for children, designed to be simple, without the former seat so many complex functions, suitable for large child care use.

4 for children aged 1 to 12 years of age (or children weighing between 9 kg -36 kg)

Such safety seat is an interesting combination of products, both a specially designed for toddler children (aged from 1-4 years of age) to prepare the seats, but also the removal of this seat belt use and direct adult seat belt can be used to 12 years. You also need to replace the other car seat cushion. The disadvantage of this product is that the head difference for children 1 year old and 12-year-old is quite large, so the smaller the baby is not too comfortable. Car seat

5 for 3-year-old to 12-year-old child (or children weighing between 15 kg -36 kg) of

and classification of 5 different car seat cushion is 3 to 12 years old child safety seats, car safety seat cushion than to have more side and head protection. The height of the headrest is raised as the child’s height, you can use the children’s height at 145 cm height. Headrest side belt guide hole, to ensure that the belt away from the neck.

4, constituting the

seat fabric

As a safety configuration, the safety seat made very sophisticated, very smooth fabric feel, through the generalGas mesh production process, is conducive to human perspiration, keeping the skin dry, while some products are also used flame-retardant materials, to prevent the secondary damage during accidents.

filler

The safety seat needs to withstand a certain impact force, so that in addition to the structure itself, the choice of filler is also important. Most of the use of plastic foam and shoddy products, whether functional or not environmentally friendly standards. At present, high-quality seats have opted for a thermoplastic filling material called “ESP”, although as with “electronic power steering” the abbreviation, but the function is very different, it has a good buffer, seismic, thermal insulation, thermal insulation and so on.

After the cushion

a separate standard ISOFIX deck to 4-year-old child, many parents think that children can no longer use the car seat cushion. But the findings show that the child’s body is too small, that the use of adult seat belts, if an accident occurs, will still be very dangerous. Car seat cushion is usually not expensive, it is best not to save in it.

ISOFIX Interface

ISOFIX stands for “International Standards Organisation FIX”, Chinese meaning: ISO fixture. It is a new standard with regard to placement of the child seat in the car.

ISOFIX child safety seat system allows the car become one, can advance through indirect seatbelt deceleration, extremely improve the safety of children with the vehicle deceleration instead. Overseas, the family car basically support ISOFIX interfaces and sales of car seats also must have ISOFIX interface.

in Chinese domestic support ISOFIX interface models: Mazda 6, Touran, Picasso, VOLVO Volvo XC90, the Touareg, mark 407, Peugeot 408, Pentium, Citroen C4, Touareg, BMW 325i, the new POLO and so on.

5, fixing means

installation safety seat, is divided into several basic:

Vehicle seat belt anchor

the seat basket is generally used, without such a safety seat isofix function, or the owner of the automobile itself, without isofix interface, using 3-12 stages of the safety seat, which case safety seat is no longer fixed directly onto the car seat, child safety seat to sit on, the Department of the car seat belt on it.

this can not be fixed in a child safety seat, many people will feel unsafe, in fact it’s like as an adult seat belt, with child safety seats, children can use the car seat belts and safety the seat belt has guide means, the height of the headrest can be adjusted to ensure that the belt away from the neck, there is a seat with a red crescent above buckle, clasp red crescent 18 kg baby after use of the car seat belts when the baby car seat belts fixed in the shoulder, neck and prevent Le baby. Many domestic sales of child safety seats are only fixed support this way.

isofix fixing means

ISOFIX Interface ISOFIX (InternationalStandardsOrganizationFIX) child safety seat system since 1990 in Europe embodiment designed for a child safety seat standard interfaces. Will present the (2013) models sold in Europe will this interface as standard, also part of the joint venture in the domestic automobile manufacturers to provide this configuration interface. Features of this configuration is to have two child seats with hard links fixed interface.

latch fixed

LATCH is “LowerAnchorsandTethersforCHildren” short, the Chinese translation up very stiff, called “buckle under and tied with a children’s use of” from September 1, 2002, the United States will almost all kinds of provisions the car must provide a child safety seat LATCH system fixation. It is the largest European standard ISOFIX fixation difference is that the connection is not linked to a hard link but at the same time connected, and one more than the fixed-point ISOFIX, a total of three.

isofix latch and noticeable difference is that the former is more connection metal rod, which is a soft link strap. isofix also has a soft tape links, such as the Concord TransformerX-BAG, bellelli of Massimo and so on. ISOFIX is compatible with LATCH, that interface must have LATCH seat ISOFIX interfaces can also be installed, but only ISOFIX interface can not use the child seat LATCH interface (due to lack of a fixed point).

6, purchase points

The child safety seat

1, passing to carefully select the material. You can not select a child safety seat with a pungent odor materials, with a pungent odor means there may be toxic volatile gases, children will also produce discomfort may irritate delicate skin, and even poisoning in children.

2, to choose a comfortable breathable fabrics for fire.

3, the most important thing is the child safety seat internal filling, a good quality child safety seat will use an EPS or EVA material, but only poor ordinary child safety seat foam.

4, using a standard interface to select seats. A child safety seat “motor vehicle child occupant restraint system,” the national standard, which defines a seat ISOFIX fixed interface, so choose the interface in the purchase of fixed ISOFIX child safety seat installation more convenient.

5, strengthen information feedback to improve awareness of rights. After purchasing child safety seat, be sure to complete and return the product to receipts seat manufacturers, in order to found quality problems and update product information, manufacturers can promptly notify you. To obtain a copy of the purchase invoice and keep it appear to be in touch with the merchant or the manufacturer when quality problems, or complaints to the Consumer Council and other relevant units.

7. Maintenance

1, taking the cloth with liquid detergent or cleaner dedicated baby clothes handAfter dry naturally.

2, gently scrub the plastic part with a damp cloth.

3, if a child seat is damaged, should be repaired, the damaged part so as not to pull the child increases.

4, the child seat on the relatively dry place, avoid long-haired.

5, re-installation, double-check that the correct installation and securely.

8, laws and regulations

production standard child safety seat

on child car safety regulations and the introduction of standards for child car safety seats development had a tremendous role in promoting. There are world following major criteria: European ECER44 / 03 standard, the United States JPMA / ASTM, CMVSS213 Canada, Japan JIS, Australia, China Taiwan and other places have also issued specific standards. Among them, the most stringent requirements of the European People use car child safety seat turned to the mandatory use by the spontaneous use.

in the “national mandatory standards for child safety seats and other related products,” China, Central BARI has been drafted on July 1, 2012 formally implemented, including the technical requirements of the standard seat itself and all vehicles sold must be forced to install the device ISOFIX anchor system requirements.

testing requirements

European and American countries, depending on national circumstances, have developed a method for detecting a child safety seat. All countries have a seat on the dynamic performance of the stringent technical requirements for the amount of movement of the seat testing laboratory also provides very clear. US regulations, the wear resistance of the fabric of the seat, light intensity, and the intensity of the microorganism with specific requirements are made, like Europe, salt spray test, to examine the corrosion resistance. Further, also in Europe there are strict limits on the energy absorption of the child safety seat, the anti-rolling ability, and temperature resistance and adjusting the belt take-up function.

provisions on child restraint of

Europe

Sweden requires children under 7 years old car, car safety devices to protect children should be provided;

In the United States, the age of the law is 4 years old;

is the age of five in Canada, the law;

age requirement of Australia is 8 years old;

[123 ] Germany, the Netherlands and Japan will be forced to use even a child safety seat requirement was raised to 12 years of age.

Australia New South Wales:

hand holding a child in the car, the baby is illegal;

more than one child using a seat belt is illegal;

If a child safety seat on the front passenger seat air bag installation of a security is illegal

New Zealand children under 5 years of age required using a suitable child safety seat;

in the case where there is supply, 5 to 7 years old children necessary to use a child restraint device in a vehicle;

children 7 to 14 years is necessary to use seat belts, seat belt if the vehicle is not installed, it is necessary child in the back seat.

UK in the UK September 18, 2006 by legislation;

children under 3 years old, 3 years old to 12 years old or 135 cm below the children must be used in the car child safety seat or booster seat.

exceptions are included: the back seat of the vehicle is not equipped with safety belts; the vehicle is a taxi ride or a child needs in an emergency.

Hong Kong also implement this legislation.

9, Chinese security status of the use of seat

“China Automotive Social Blue Book”: China 75.66 percentage cars not equipped with child safety seat; 43.12 percentage when parents of children riding embrace; 10.05 Percentage of parents I think airbags to protect children. This is the main reason children were injured in a traffic accident.

According to US media reports, in China, only about 1% of the cars equipped with child safety seats. Public intended to install a child safety seatKnowledge is poor. CASS data show that about 40% of the parents that their children sit in the front seat without a safety situation. World Health Organization said that this seat can reduce the pressure on the neck and spine in a car accident, the death rate by 70%. In 2012, the number of children in China died in a traffic accident nearly three times the United States. In 2013, the government has increased the penalties for not wearing a seatbelt or driving a cell phone and other acts, the next step is for parents to install child safety seats.

Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention will be encouraged to carry out by the end of 2013 in Beijing, Shanghai and Shenzhen to use a child seat action. Center plans to hold talks in kindergarten and primary school, collaboration with doctors on-site to help parents correct use of child seats.

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