1, the concepts outlined
From the structural design of the tire can be divided into: bias tires and radial tires. Simply called bias tire nylon tire. This concept is known as a radial tire with respect to the steel tire terms. Bias tire cords intersected by oblique lines, hence the name.
bias tire is an old-fashioned tire structure. Casing by the tread, the carcass layer (carcass), and a buffer layer composed of a bead, a carcass ply skeleton, to maintain the shape and size of the tire, usually hanging tape (fabric) by the number of pairs with a multilayer rubber bonded to each other, the carcass cords and the centreline of the tread of about 35 degrees to form, through the tread to the other side of the tire bead from the side edges. In the selection of nylon, polyester fiber cord or class high-strength wire material, can greatly enhance the load carrying capacity of the tire to improve tire performance, it is commonly used as a modern automobile tire.
2, structural features
The main bias tire tread plies, the composition of the buffer layer and the bead. Common bias ply tire and a buffer layer of adjacent cords intersect, and the center line of the tread is less than 90 degree angles. Bias tire tread is submitted inserted shape, non-slip effect, since the inner layer does not change, the economic effect is not obvious.
1) of the tread: the tread outer surface of the tire casing, includes three parts crown, shoulder and sidewall.
the crown: the crown made of wear-resistant rubber, it is directly subjected to friction and full load, it can reduce the impact suffered ply. And protection ply and inner tubes, so that its mechanical damage. There are various embossing pattern on the tread, in order to ensure the adhesion performance of the tire and the ground, to prevent tire slip. Tire tread pattern has a very important impact on car performance, it is necessary to pay sufficient attention to the tire tread in the selection of tires.
the shoulder: the shoulder portion is a transition between the crown and a thicker sidewall thinner. In addition to its function as a protective ply, but also generally surface formed with various patterns to facilitate skid and heat.
Sidewall: sidewall is attached a thin layer of sidewall rubber plies, it is subjected to high distortion, their role is to protect cord plies from mechanical damage and water erosion.
ply tire skeleton is also known as the carcass. Its main role is to bear the load, to maintain the shape and size of the casing, so that the casing has a certain strength. Typically a multilayer ply of rubberized cords with rubber bonded together. In order to make the load being evenly distributed, mostly even number of plies. The more number of plies, the greater the intensity, but the corresponding decreases its elasticity. Number of plies are generally marked on the surface of the casing.
generally ply cotton materials, artificial silk, nylon and steel wire. After now use more for steel cord and polyamide fiber, in the same case of the tire load carrying capacity of plies can be reduced, so that not only reduces the consumption of rubber, improve the quality of the tires, but also reduce the rolling resistance, extended tire life.
3) a buffer layer
The buffer layer is located between the tread and the plies, generally formed of two or several layers of cords and sparse large elastic rubber, so that greater flexibility, able to absorb the impact suffered by the car travel on the rough road, and to prevent the car from the tread and the ply during emergency braking.
by the bead wire ring, the ply wrapping and chafers, has a great stiffness and strength, can be securely mounted on the tire rim .
Since the strength of bias ply arrangement, bias tire tread and sidewall is large. When properly inflated, to ensure a suitable elastic tire, sufficient bearing capacity to meet the requirements of automobile tires. However, bias tire sidewall stiffness greater, poor comfort due to friction between the plies and the large movement at a high speed, not suitable for high speed.
In contrast, radial ply tire corresponds to the basic skeleton of the tire, which is the arrangement direction of the tire meridian cross section of the same. Due to running of the tire to bear a larger tangential force to guarantee the stability of the cord, in which there are a plurality of outer belt layer of a high strength, made of a material difficult to stretch (also known as banding layer) which meridional direction of the cord section was larger crossing angle. Therefore, the radial tire and ordinary slash tiresCompared, elasticity, wear resistance, rolling resistance, good adhesion properties, cushioning properties, load capacity, easy piercing; but the drawback is easy to sidewall cracks due to lateral deformation, leading car lateral stability somewhat less, high technology manufacturing requirements and high costs.
3, classification design
and each adjacent cord intersecting the tread center line
common bias tire
and the buffer layer ply pneumatic tire was arranged at an angle, called common bias tires.
bias tire structure
with the casing by a crown ply, the composition of the buffer layer and the bead. Ply tire skeleton is, to maintain the shape and size of the tire, usually linked to the number of pairs of the multilayer tape (fabric) bonded together by a rubber. Crossing angle ply cords of the tire meridian cross section (crown angle) is generally 48 degrees to 55 degrees, the cords of adjacent layers intersect arrangement. The more layers of fabric, the greater the intensity, but less elastic. On the casing surface marked with number of plies, such as 16 levels, 18 levels and the like.
by a ply of longitudinal warp threads and a tough few wefts in between the warp threads woven. The cords may be cotton, artificial silk, nylon cord and wire. Rayon can use the same size of the tire to increase its load bearing capacity, because the strength of rayon and elasticity. Better off than nylon, rayon, high durability. Thus, when using rayon, nylon or steel cord, at the same tire load carrying capacity, the number of plies can be reduced at this time is marked on the casing surface is level, (corresponding to cotton ply layers, rather than the actual ply layers). China has extensive use of rayon and nylon cord, recently began using steel cord, but high prices and crisp but not widely used.
The buffer layer is located between the tread and the ply, and the film is linked with two or several layers of fabric made of a dilute glue, so that greater flexibility, can ease the uneven road when driving automobiles is subjected to shocks and prevent the car from the tread and the ply during emergency braking.
the tire tread is the outer most layer can be divided into the crown, sidewall and shoulderThree parts, the crown made of wear-resistant rubber, it is directly subjected to friction and full load, can reduce the impact suffered ply, and the ply and the protective tube against mechanical damage. The tire and the ground to have good adhesion properties, preventing vertical, lateral slip, etc., in the tread has a concavo-convex pattern of various shapes.
the shoulder portion is a transition between the thinner and thicker crown sidewall, generally made of a pattern, to facilitate heat dissipation.
sidewall rubber layer is thin, the sidewall plies to protect from moisture and mechanical damage.
that the tire bead securely mounted on the rim, we have great stiffness and strength, a bead, the ply wrapping and chafer components. Bias-belted
bias belted tires (bias belted tyre), also known as semi-radial tire is a pneumatic tire means the layer tightening bias tire carcass to the belt. It is a compromise between the structure of the program between the common bias tires and radial tires. Belt cords arranged with bias-belted radial tire near intersection angle ply cords meridional cross section which is smaller than the normal bias tire, is greater than a radial tire. Tire performance between the bias tires and radial tires, producing substantially the same bias. Thus, bias-belted life and rolling resistance of the tire is interposed between the two, but the lateral stability is better than car radial tire.
bias belted tire production only the United States in the world, as a transition to a radial tire bias tire product, with the development of radial tires, which tire will gradually be eliminated.
Now, in order to simplify the bias tire in the production process, would increase the effectiveness and economic, it has tended to reduce the weight of the layer. After the national limit overload of program implementation, as a large bias tire producers such as Double Happiness gradually reduce the production of high-level bias tire, truck tire low-level effect is not very optimistic, therefore, is gradually becoming too small tire meridian . Bias tire is a tire of a traditional structure, although in use for a long time, a wide range of use, production technology has also been someBasis, but due to the unreasonable on its structure, affecting the development, it will gradually be replaced by the meridian of the tide.