What is the horn?

1. Overview

1. A wind instrument, on the fine under the rough, made of multi-copper, commonly known as the horn. Wind instrument, on the fine under the rough, lowermost mouth portion open to the surrounding, can amplify the sound.


Ming Qi “jixiao xinshu middot; Order”: ldquo; Where bugle Arrayed to each soldiers i.e. the line times, a poly each post. rdquo; “Twenty years have witnessed a strange situation” Sixth eight back: ldquo; sudden ear heard playing Ha, ha while playing the horn ring. rdquo; Mao Dun “color blind”: ldquo; blown loud speaker notes, one flying bumped Lin Baishuang eardrum. rdquo;.

2 an electro-acoustic components. Its role is to convert electrical signals into sound. Also known as speakers. Ba Jin “destroyed” a: ldquo; ﹝ ﹞ first press speaker driver, and then they opened the car is gone. rdquo; Wei Wei “Oriental” Chapter XVI Part IV: ldquo; At this critical moment, I suddenly heard the front left leg mountain loudspeaker while dth Lala land strange sound. rdquo;.

3 Yu restricted to advocate, promote people. Mao Dun’s “Midnight” Eight: ldquo; loss you said Hanmeng Xiang enough friends, enough friends what ah! He is Zhao Botao speakers. rdquo;

2, history


As early as 1877, the German company Siemens ErenstVerner according to Fleming’s left hand rule get moving-coil loudspeaker patent. In 1898, the British OliverLodge Sir further accordance with the principles of the invention of the telephone mouthpiece cone speakers, and we are familiar with is very similar to the modern horn, jazz Lodge called “roaring phone.” However, this invention can not use, because until 190LeeDeForest six years before the invention triode vacuum tube amplifier made available again after several years of thing, so the speaker cone to the 1930s and eventually spread up.

Another reason is that in 1921 the new album to come out electrically recorded it than the traditional mechanical engraving records have better dynamic range (up to 30dB), forcing people to have to try to improve speaker characteristics that fit. In 1923, Bell Labs decided to develop the perfect music reproduction system, including a new type of player and speakers, stereo recording with MC phono, stereo mode, etc. carved piece, it was invented in this wave action. Heavy responsibility R & D speakers, falls C.W.Rice with two engineers who E.W.Kellogg. Equipment they use all the time people never seen before, including a 200-watt vacuum tube amplifier, Bell Labs yourself many recordings over the years with Bell Labs developed a variety of speakers – like the Lodge speaker cone shape, with a diaphragm valve controlled compressed gas stream of compressed air horn, corona discharge horn (now called electric ion drive), and an electrostatic speaker.
Rice and Kellogg did not take long to pick from a number of styles in the two designs – cone type and static type, this one decided to make the development direction of the horn from one point and two: traditional and innovative. Moving-coil loudspeaker moving-coil loudspeaker horn from the base of the reed evolved, intermediate ring has a cylindrical magnet coil, the coil leading end directly fixed cone or diaphragm, but the audio through the coil current, magnetic field be changed back and forth movement of the coil will affect the sound cone. Moving-coil loudspeaker inception since the permanent magnets strength is difficult to fit, so much electromagnetic design, additional winding in the magnet coil a magnetic field is generated, this design has been popular as long as twenty years. However, the electromagnetic horn has its problems, such as prone to interference hum 60Hz and 120Hz direct current pulses through the solenoid coil; and the current intensity of the electromagnetic coil varies with the audio signal, resulting in a new instability.

Speaker During the Great Depression

1930s, Edison phonograph company goes bankrupt, others not much better, the need to expand machine-driven speaker therefore promotion flow, Victorla old phonograph until the World War II are stillvery popular. After World War II economic boom, a variety of new audio accessories become popular, cone type speakers once again be severely tested. During this time due to the successful development of a strong alloy magnet, moving-coil loudspeaker by the electromagnetic all become a permanent magnet, the shortcomings of the past swept away (commonly used in addition to the natural cobalt magnet, there are Alnico and Ferrite magnets, in addition to the flux outside density, various properties of natural magnets are more favorable in recent years, high-level speakers are neodymium magnets). To tie in with the advent of LP, as well as progress in Hi-Fi systems, speaker cone so seek reform in the cone material. Common to such relatively heavy material woofer, tweeter as light and stiff diaphragm; or speakers of different sizes assembled coaxially monomer; also added into compression horn tweeter horn front treble; and even there will tweeter horn hidden in the back of the bass cone design. 1965 British Harbeth invention the vacuum forming (Bextrene) plastic diaphragm, is an advance on the material, but high damping This soft product, can still be seen on some English speakers KEF. Later, the invention also Harbeth polypropylene plastic diaphragm, this new material has higher internal damping, lighter, many speakers are still being employed. When engineers design have become two horn thinking direction: seek a breakthrough subwoofer speaker structure; the tweeter make improvements monomer. So there are some new designs this time, almost all of the tweeter. More successful design, in the case of electrostatic speakers. Electrostatic speakers mentioned earlier Rice and Kellogg experimental speakers at Bell Labs, they made big as a door panel electrostatic speakers, the diaphragm constituted by the pig colon outsourcing foil (plastic is not yet on the market). When the vacuum tube brilliant shine, shiny gold monster has a hypnotic effect, with pig intestines foul odor and ozone in the air is full of flavor laboratory, two scientists might think Bell, “” Frankenstein “and the use made of the dead ear sound mind. ” However, after the start of the utterance, its dazzling sound and realistic sound, just so that everyone stunned, they understand that a new era has arrived. But Rice and Kellogg encountered in the design of electrostatic loudspeaker insurmountable problem: the need for huge bass diaphragm can complete regeneration, in the case of technology hard, Bell Labs had to turn the cone speaker development, making this stagnation electrostatic loudspeaker quiet for three decades. In 1947 anArthurJanszen young naval officer assigned by the development of new sonar detection equipment, but the equipment requires very accurate speakers. Janszen found that cone speaker is not linear, so he tried a static speaker hands, coated with conductive paint on the plastic sheet when the diaphragm, it turned out that the performance of either phase or amplitude are extraordinary. Janszen continue to study, we found that arc effect that the fixed plate (Stator) insulation prevents the damaging effects. In 1952, Janszen complete electrostatic tweeter commercial production, and the woofer with AR, was the best combination of audio fans dream. In 1955, PeterWalker consecutive published many articles on electrostatic loudspeaker design in the UK “Radio World”, he believes that electrostatic speakers are born with wide flat response and low distortion, distortion than at the time of the expansion machine is also much lower. In 1956, in the ideal PeterWalker QuadESL horn implements (Quad is his early one kind of machine QualityUnitAmplifier-Domestic expand the abbreviation to name), its accuracy is known as Kam listen to the new standard, but there are still some problems to be overcome : lack of volume, make certain the load impedance amplifier intimidating, lack of proliferation, carrying power is limited. Janszen early 1960s joined KLH KLH-9 is a listed company and work, due to the large size of the KLH-9 to solve the problem QuadESL, until 1968, when former Infinity was founded, KLH-9 electrostatic speakers are the most Hi -End of products. Janszen achievement not only here, in his assistance, koss, Acoustech, Dennesen and other electrostatic speaker after another came, the chief designer Janszen companies RogerWest also create a self-sustaining SoundLab company.

Speaker When Janszen sale of the business, RTR company bought production equipment, the introduction of Servostatic electrostatic plate, Infinity’s first speaker on the use of RTR products. Janszen company changed hands several times, but has not disappeared, and today one of -DaveWilson horn king of WAMM giant system, which would use part Janszen designed electrostatic plates. Electrostatic loudspeaker designed to attract many manufacturers invest more famous include Acoustat, AudioStatic, Beverage, DaytonWright, SoundLab, Stax and MartinLogan and so on. AcoustatX itself with vacuum tube amplifier, the signal may be output without having to use a high-pressure booster; Beverage2SW except with a high voltage amplifier, a controller, a pair of subwoofers. Since Beverage2SW two meters high and a diaphragm mounted in the elliptical speakers using an acoustic waveguide so that sound from the front plate openings uniformly spread, can be formed very stereo audio, anyway, it is recommended that on both sides of the wall, and then play face to face. DaytonWright very special design, a diaphragm mounted in the inert gas sulfur hexafluoride sealed plastic bag, to increase the efficiency and output of the horn sound pressure. The most expensive electrostatic speakers, MarkLevinson belong to the HQD. Each channel using two Quad electrostatic speakers, plus a ribbon tweeter modified with a 24-inch bass extending ends increase the frequency, accompanied by three-stage MarkLevinsonML-2 and the electronic crossover, asking price of 15,000 dollars, It was really high price. MartinLogan produce large cone bass to solve the problem, in recent years a series of bass mixed Cone design was a great success, coupled with the introduction of new technology, delay lines, acoustic lens, wave-shaped diaphragm, so that more and electrostatic speakers the more amiable, we believe it will continue to exist.

3, classification

ribbon speakers Speaker

In late 1940, when a young Canadian inventor GilbertHobrough use amplifier, oversight broadcast music Remove the speaker wire, and so that the heating wire near the ground wire. This is a very dangerous action, but Hobrough surprised to find wires began mixing action, and issued music, this “wire with gain” Soon after understand static effect. Hobrough further study, only 1About 910 years it has been asking this question in 1925 using a conductive metal sheet in a magnetic field horn has been patented in Germany, when people say that this is a ribbon speaker. 1920 and 1930 years, respectively, there are two ribbon speaker listed, but short-lived and soon subsided. Principle is mounted a ribbon speaker can vibrate in two magnets with the metal film, when the current through the metal strip, will produce a change in magnetic field vibration sound. When Hobrough rediscovered ribbon speakers, Quad-founder PeterWalker Britain also sell one kind of horn loaded ribbon tweeter, the treble was not successful, but around 1960 the British Decca ribbon tweeter very successful launch. Another similar ribbon speakers KellyRibbon IrvingFried by the introduction of the United States, he will Kelly treble bass coupled with the transmission line to produce good results. 1970, DickSequerra pyramid (Pyramid) development of ribbon speaker, the first discard horn design. Hobrough found that after three decades of ribbon speaker, he has to operate against aerial mapping and patent automatic machinery subsidies, ongoing research, and finally down to 400Hz response remains flat ribbon monomer in 1978 and the successful development of frequency ( At that time only product to 600Hz), and will not melt, broken or deformed, distorted only 1%. Hobrough with his son TheodoreHobrough also received a patent: No special resonance speaker and ribbon tweeter with more bass propylene used. But they JumetiteLab as speaker brand manufactured, bent at a lower price available to everyone to use, in the market did not turn red. Later, including California, Berkeley VMPSAudio, Iowa City GoldRibbonConcepts, Massachusetts ApogeeCorporation, have developed a bandwidth greater than JumetiteLab ribbon speaker systems.

GoldRibbon maximum bandwidth for producing a ribbon drive (200Hz-30KHz), they are not aluminum, but gold thickness of only 1 micron (millionth m) made of the diaphragm. However, the most successful, but it is Apogee companies. Who is also art dealers and audio players JasonBloom, coupled with hisFather LeoSpiegel- a retired aeronautical engineer, composed Apogee. They are responsible for a classical ribbon drive treble, 100Hz or less using another quasi-ribbon driver, in recent years, also joined the cone bass mix design for evaluation are quite high. Further there is a family of distantly related ribbon speaker -BES (BertagniElectroacousticSystem) pulsating diaphragm speakers. BES with typical electrostatic speakers or Magneplanar flat speakers, as has an open shelf with a flat diaphragm, the sound forward after radiation. BES but not thin metal plate, but varying the thickness of the foam, a bit like the outer dimensional map. BES diaphragm surface design makes more resonance modes, the different parts of the diaphragm portion vibration at different frequencies, the vibration mode is not a mechanical piston, but rather as wide and uniform audio tuning fork vibration. BES’s design caused much controversy, of course, finally let the matter rest. During the ribbon plane loudspeaker horn of evolution, evolve a kind of plane dynamic speaker, also known as false ribbon speakers, it is thanks to the advent of the US 3M engineer JimWiney. JimWiney originally amateur audio enthusiasts, he likes electrostatic speakers, but feel KLH-9 is too expensive, there should be ways to reduce the cost of my son. One day he inspiration, he found pottery soft magnet for a refrigerator door, the light weight, low cost, easy to manufacture cutting, it is suitable for making magnetic structure. Such driving magnet uniformly flat, wide entire surface of the diaphragm, the radiation pattern of the plastic available bipolar diaphragm horn. There are many small metal wire, metal wire receiving signals from the amplifier, and with the magnetic field of the permanent magnet of the speaker diaphragm produces suction JimWiney design pushing action. In 1971, Winey launched a new type of speaker, initially named “static magnetic field” (Magnestatic), later renamed the “magnetically” (Magneplanar). Magneplanar after the listing to get a lot of feedback, including a flat dynamic speaker Strathearn, wharfedale, JVC, Cerwin-Vega, Thorens and other companies have developed different patterns, of which the most famous is the Infinity. Infinity launched QuantumReferenceStandard with twin amplifiers and electronic crossover, it’s not one piece of the diaphragm, but by many small diaphragm composition. QRS two meters high, one meter wide, a total of 20 tweeter, 13 forward, back rest, arranged in a straight line vertically. Alto has three monomers, but also vertically. Together with a 15-inch bass, can be issued so that extremely shocking QRS volume, frequency beyond the audible range. Later EMIT tweeter (ElectroMagneticInduction) and EMIM midrange, is a planar diaphragm, and treble used later Genesis has not the same, may be considered Genesis treble monomer mix design and the strip plane monomer, while the sound part of Genesis loudspeakers are used band-shaped cell, parted ways with the Infinity. But we can see from the IRS established Infinity giant loudspeakers, over the years is still the highest Hi-End speaker model. Plane horn has its limitations, its magnetic flux of the magnetic field structure so that only the edge of the diaphragm can be distributed with the “voice coil” interactions, so efficiency is not high, to be able to present this phenomenon persists. In yet another aspect, the plane horn used in the diaphragm are far more severe than the electrostatic speakers or ribbon speakers, thus limiting its bandwidth, in the past only Audire a company uses a full range of plane drive, even Magneplanar own horn were later shift to alt strip monomers, plus a combination of flat diaphragm bass. Burwen and Japan Yamaha has made use of flat diaphragm headphones, Pioneer is discarded magnetic tablet, use polymers to create a headset, but these products do not seem to get recognition. After Hale speaker unconventional speaker belongs to the most successful Haier design, to complete the first plane in Winey dynamic speaker shortly after the German physicist Haier (OskarHeil) developed a very elegant ribbon speaker deformations he called the pneumatic transformer (AirMotionTransformer).

The invention and its plane Haier like horn, a thin diaphragm of plastic, covered with a conductive aluminum “voice coil” above. However, Haier horn diaphragm is not taut, but pleated, loosely hanging on the rack, so the wire coil located within the pile vertical magnet gaps, bending wrinkles when the magnetic alternating diaphragm squeeze ,againThey are open, the air is squeezed with the audio and sound. This design has a very high efficiency, strong magnetic force on the diaphragm can reduce the effective mass reactance or audio impedance, which is the origin of the “pneumatic transformer” name. This is in fact the speaker sound transformers, as with the horn, a lower frequency can make the effective mass extending upwardly, Common Haier drive has a bandwidth of 300Hz-25kHz, completely without equalization. Although Dr. Haier confident of their own design, that their speaker is reasonable, others are peculiar horn, but because of poor manufacturing quality control, with the woofer and too simple, so Haier speaker gradually disappear. Ion horn monster will get angry when Bell Labs Rice and Kellogg face many unknowns, called ring arcs (SingingArc) or ring discharge horn, probably the most awesome. As early as the 1920s, radio technicians discovered, for modulation of high-voltage transmitter signal sometimes form a shiny blue ball of gas, it will broadcast the sound coming out from the shiny ball, but the sound is not very clear, Some people describe: it is simply the same flames. Rice and Kellogg did not seriously to study this phenomenon, because this pronunciation insufficient bandwidth devices, also issued a large amount of ozone. 1940, French nuclear physicist SiegfriedKlein rediscovered this phenomenon and try to develop new speaker, in 1950 he was named “ion speaker” for new products. This design has no mechanical resonance, there is no quality, unlimited obedience nature, seems to be a major breakthrough in speaker. British Decca, the French Audax, Germany, Telefunken, UK Fane and Japan all have invested in research Realon ion horn, but the first commercial market is the United States Dukane (ElectroVoice), they launched a new product called Ionovac in 1962, and later replaced by AmericanAudioCom. production, it continued for a long period of time. As SiegfriedKlein itself is not involved in the production, he continued to study, like a candle magic horn, like ion, can blow hard towards it but did not damage the music player. Another advantage is that very efficient ion speaker, sound pressure of 105dB only 10 watt amplifier can be reached, the frequency response may be reduced to about 1000Hz. SiegfriedKlein design produced by Magant Germany, but the United States prohibit the sale, because the amount of ozone exceeds the standard, but also the threat of another HillPlasmatronic brand Magant monopoly position. Plasmatronic speaker principle laser physicist AlanHill designed and SiegfriedKlein same ion speaker, using a quartz tube equipped with special gas discharge phenomenon, the air ionization and sound, most simply, they sound good process like thunder after the lightning phenomenon. This horn excellent high frequency characteristics, but the limited life of the quartz tube (every few months should add helium), and costly, is not easy to use. Hill ions from the horn frequency 700Hz-20kHz, 10 feet away in the sound pressure of 90dB still, the bass to conventional cone speakers process. This pair of speakers perfect phase and amplitude linearity, distortion is less than 1%, but the price up to ten thousand dollars (Class A amplifier comes with a push treble, and there are electronic crossover), few people take it for granted purchase. But Hill and Magant ion speaker, still exist in the market for a long time. The real cone speaker in 1985 by the launch of Ohm Walsh, BES and its creative enough to be compared, is the first of the real cone speakers, not only with a single cone, horn itself is a cone. Walsh only treated with a single broad frequency of 20Hz-20kHz, at the top of the drive cone speaker, speaker voice coil and the magnet toward the inside above the diaphragm. Walsh exploded operating mode control, when the frequency increases, the voice coil reacts narrow cone; cone increases the lower frequency range of activities.

does not reach this goal, the cone of several concentric rings of different materials, the role of concentric ring is equal to the bass filter. Ring, the lower the frequency of the treatment, the lowest frequency of the entire cone movement; only the high frequency diaphragm is maintained with very light, damping manner maintaining flat frequency response. This design regardless of phase or amplitude have a very good linearity, it is most important sound 180 degrees. Another speaker cone model is mbl 101 speakers of German. Around 1975, a computer-controlled instrument company boss Meletzky found that spherical single best meet his ideal, the diaphragm dome monomer is more than the traditional single speaker, a better simulation of natural instrument in spacePerformance. So he combined the two professors at the University of Berlin made aluminum pleated skirt-like circular monomer, this product called 100 did not officially listed. 1987 mbl carbon fiber as the material, producing a 360 degree sound can alt monomers, plus many gourd-shaped aluminum sheet sticky synthetic bass speaker 101 Release surprising. There is also a speaker Orthophase adhesion very light in the entire aluminum sheet on a plastic film, and then placed in a strong magnetic field, the vibration sound generated energization aluminum.

Horn Horn Horn Horn

In 1919, the American physicist ArthurG.Webster index of horn speakers invention, since up to 50% efficiency (typically efficiency of only 1-10% moving-coil loudspeaker, Klipsch horn speaker efficiency of about 30%), soon to be generally used in place requires a large volume of theaters, stadiums and so on. Horn speaker is the most important feature of high efficiency, a little power can be given a great sound. Its disadvantage is not conducive to low-frequency playback, to be played back if low, the need for a long horn, the playback frequency of 50Hz to an example, the opening diameter of the horn to two meters, will have a length greater than five meters down. 1940 PaulW.Klipsch American engineers designed a smaller size suitable for families with folded bass horn speakers, device drivers using the corner of the room, the walls of the room as a large horn to celebrate the fiftieth birthday in Klipschorn, this type horn is still healthy and strong to continue production. 1927 founded AltecLansing is another horn trumpet legend, 1956 years launched A7 “Voice of Theater”, now there are still people to join. 1932 establishment of the British Vitavox, introduced comparable Klipschorn the CN191 horn speaker in 1947, has a frequency response up to 20Hz-20kHz, is also still in reservation production. Characteristics of horn speaker horn lengths vary, the shape of the material used vary. From the early iron, aluminum, zinc horn, evolved while plastic, cement, wood, horn, synthetic materials, horn and other materials. Properly designed, can horn speakers sound less detailed problem solving to do part; poorly designed, maybe even roar effect occurs. According to HornShape can be divided hyperbolic, parabolic, exponential and conical, and the like, wherein the angle of the most commonly used model index. Some of the horn is too strong, the acoustic lens must also add a (AcousticLens) at the front end, in order to increase the angle of sound dispersion. Some simplifications folding horn gradually been proposed, some designs with short horn and back walls of the room to strengthen the low-frequency loudspeaker emitted, also issued in Treble Cone directly from the front, behind this load of folded horn speakers usually have good Effect. The current horn speakers with cone bass use, because the horn is usually the efficiency of more than 100dB, so the use of the not so easy, the more successful manufacturers are JBL, Electro-Voice, Nordic Einstein, France Jadis (unique Eurythmie11 sufficient to leaving a legacy), United States Westlake, Italy Zingali and so on. In addition to improved air cushion speaker monomer itself, from the starts in five ○ years, engineers are also speakers on brains, want to use the same monomers can show better results.
The best known design has two types of air cushion horn, one is the transmission line loudspeaker.

Air Cushion Speaker Air Cushion Speaker

1958 stereo recordings advent of sound into the three-dimensional world, the horn sing like a top need to be redesigned, more consumers buy one of the same type horn on it. But because of this, bulky speakers no longer favored, we need to have a sufficiently small low frequency of new products, air horn should be shipped together. Resulting cushion speaker behind the popular hero, it should be crystal amplifier, he provided no heat of power to cope with the inefficiencies caused by air cushion design. Cushion speaker is also the culprit behind the expansion of high-power machine, many years ○ seven people have this idea; not a large output amplifier is bad, not the air cushion is not enough high-level speakers.

is closed air cushion in one design. When the monomer motion, if the back wave transmitted to the front will cause the low frequency offset signals, it is the concept of an infinite baffle generated. A sealed box can also be used as an infinite baffle, so that the front and rear wave to each other opportunities to a minimum. Bass reflex is derived infinite baffle designs, due to the size of the cone limits the resonance frequency of the low frequency speakerPerformance, so a speaker mounted in an opening may extend the low frequency response has. Size of the opening is determined by the volume of the speaker and the resonance frequency of the monomers, when the speaker sound reflection phase shift, and the low frequency cone opening emitted produce the same reinforcing effect.

In 1954 AR founder EdgarVillchur launched air cushion speaker, improve the rigidity of the air is generally closed box problem led to a low-frequency rapid decay. Moving coil is typically composed of monomer cone and voice coil, an edge cone of an elastic material support, which makes it impossible to have free air vibration frequency. If the sound absorbing material is filled in an airtight enclosure, the speaker will produce higher than standalone drive vibration frequency, EdgarVillchur freedom air vibration frequency of about 10Hz monomer mounted airtight to 1.7 cubic feet speaker, the speaker increase the resonance frequency of 43Hz. This design provides you with greatly reduced distortion system, on the one hand but also sent deep bass, the disadvantage is greatly reduced efficiency.

the transmission line loudspeaker Horn

first transmission line horn called labyrinth design, the speaker unit is mounted at one end of the speaker, through a complex and long channel co-ordination, the back wave from the opening at the other end of the monomer is diffused out. The first is a labyrinth design BanjaminOlney 1936 is designed Stromberg-Carson, he would a resonance frequency of 50Hz monomer charged labyrinth speakers, its resonance frequency to result 40Hz, 40Hz, and the half-wave 75-80Hz get increased, resulting in a good bass. He also found that the response curve has many peaks, these peaks from the resonance of the speaker channel itself, he guides the laying of the sound absorbing material and hang in the letter, the cutoff frequency of 150Hz or more at the opening. The labyrinth design can get a good bass extension, but it’s making trouble, but not as economical bass reflex attainable to do simple closed competitive, so Wu ○ ‘Carson re-sell labyrinth design, still without success. Wait until mid-year when Liu ○ labyrinth speaker came back, it has a new name – the transmission line speakers.

the transmission line that is to be filled with a damper of the labyrinth in the channel, on the theory that by the British Bradford Technology Association (BradfordInstituteofTechnology) Professor A.R.Bailey mentioned it. He believes bass reflex enclosure sharply due to the low-frequency attenuation, easily lead Ringing, like suddenly the low frequency cut off electronically. If the design of an infinite channel speaker behind the back can absorb reflected waves, standing waves can eliminate nuisance, so he uses the long-fiber wool, the sound absorbing material instead of the infinite damping channel, very low frequency sound waves from the long wavelength crossing letter to escape, and enhance the low frequency effects speaker. Professor Bailey design was adopted by many manufacturers, including the IMF, Infinity, ESS, Radford and so on, they put some channel as enhanced bass purposes, while others specialize in damping purposes. The labyrinth outlet cross-sectional area generally equal to or greater than the area of ​​the diaphragm monomers; the transmission line channel is gradually reduced, the outlet cross-sectional area less than the area of ​​the diaphragm.

UK RobertFris No variants had to design a transmission line, called “anti-separation coupled to the resonance lines” DaLine (DecoupledAnti-resonantLine), this design resonance phenomenon is not known, and can use a small-sized monomer and get a good bass, but also better results than large instantaneous monomer. There is no advertised to DaLine designed speakers, but some of the bass reflex enclosure but never really get inspired and make improvements. Accustomed closed or bass reflex design people, there have been comments on the transmission line design, the transmission line of large volume, complex structure, and the difficulty of the expected results, also hindered his development. The current production of the transmission line more famous manufacturers, only the UK TDL (the predecessor of the IMF) and the PMC, PMC-wire transmission to a successful design studio Kam listen to speakers, once again arouse interest of the transmission line.

Full range speaker

from a single speaker unit design full-range, and gradually developed into a multi-way design, different engineers found there are many inter-frequency monomers convergence problems, including crossover frequency division slope, sensitivity, and so a phase error may occur, so there are two new proposed Reflection direction, one is a full range speakers, one is coaxial speakers. UK Goodmans had asked E.G.Jordan Design AXIOM80 monomer, is for recording the Listening designed, evergreen trees are full-range of monomers. Jordan and another Englishman Watts JordanWatts in 1964 formed a company, was launched by ModelUnit monomer production lasted 20 years. The monomers employed 10 cm metal diaphragm, the voice coil made of bronze, and a square frame, is very unique. 1975 JordanWatts launched flagon-shaped vase full-range speakers, until today still in production, it is a work of art like few speakers. Founded in 1932, the British Wharfedale, before and after World War II have also introduced good full-range single, boss Substitution 1958 and began to develop cutting-edge technology such as computers, abandoned the development of a full range of monomers. Another UK Lowther’d always insisted that 60 years has been steeped in the field of full-range single, they featured monomers are independent white edge, center equalizer, and now Taiwan can still buy their products.

Japan has more than a full range single manufacturer, once with Pioneer, Onkyo speakers and called the three old shop Coral, 20 cm thick has launched a full range single. Diatone become the company’s first post-war production of full-range speakers in 1946, they adopted OP magnet been a great success. In 1947 in cooperation with NHK developed the P-62F monomer, as Kam listen to the broadcast purposes, after facelift for the P-610, the entire series sold for nearly 40 years, has become a legend in the history of Japanese sound. On the eve of the 50th anniversary, Diatone has launched limited edition commemorative products, resulting in a burst of minor sensation. 1973 due to the oil crisis of independence from Foster motor Fostex, has launched many innovative products, such as double-cone full-range single basin, biological diaphragm monomer, etc., they also introduced the world’s largest woofer EW800 (80 cm).

Coaxial Speakers Speaker

Guy.R.Foundtain Tannoy company was founded in 1926, 1947, designed to LSU / HF / 15L monomer, is 38 cm thick two-way coaxial design, Fengyun monomer opened a new era of coaxial speakers. In 1953 TannoyStart with coaxial and single manufacturing Monitor15Silver and other studio Kam listen with speakers, access to many major record companies adopt many Audiophile Decca is this era to Tannoy speakers Kam listen to the recording. Tannoy coaxial ○ ‘concept from the three full range point sound source design, simple structure, having linear symmetry with directivity, low distortion, accurate, and audio. In order to obtain adequate bass, Tannoy constantly overweight in size, the last 38 cm coaxial WestminsterRoyal monomers used in the other top speakers, can produce considerable deep bass. In recent years, in addition to design Tannoy dual voice coil coaxial outer monomers, also means a tulip tweeter waveguide, increase smooth frequency response. When Tannoy70 anniversary, they launched a new flagship Kingdom trumpet, alto part is still using coaxial design, plus treble and subwoofer monomer, this speaker also illustrates the limitations of coaxial design.

Tannoy biggest competitor British fellow KEF (KentEngineeringandFoundary), active than their actions Tannoy, 1984 launch cavity coupling (CoupledCaviy), 104/2 unique concept horn with a substantial low frequency much discussion this year they added a coaxial speaker market. 1989 KEF further development, known as Release Uni-Q coaxial technology, 105/3 while using the speaker cavity coupling and Uni-Q monomer, the performance of heights. KEF’s Uni-Q monomer is mounted on a chassis with large, two small magnets, the use of treble bass horn diaphragm as pronunciation, the purpose of simultaneously coaxial; Tannoy coaxial monomers not in the same on the plane, so not really a coaxial same time.
all kinds of imitation coaxial design have emerged, specializes in manufacturing PA and Los Angeles recording studio Kam listen to speakers with Gauss, the treble put a lid on the bowl-shaped bass middle, there is a good evaluation. German Siemens also designed a coaxial single, to 9 cm tweeter placed 25 cm in front of the bass, and then to improve the diffusion angle of the acoustic lens, seven ○ ‘to enter the theater market caused a great topic.

Horn Other types of LaA pair

Piezoelectric monomer, use is currently found only in a few tweeter. The so-called piezoelectric material (Piezo-electric), refers to the application of a voltage would expand, shrink or bend the material, such as potassium sodium tartrate (Rochellesalt), barium titanate, titanates, zirconates and other compositions, which have It is used in the pickup, headphones and other components. As used in the horn, until axially extending made polycarboxylic vinyl fluoride, and aluminum vaporized in vacuum on both sides to be treated after the emergence of a high polymer, it was able to achieve. Such monomers are good linearity, low distortion, transient good, because quality of light can be designed in various shapes. Its disadvantage is that he has a capacitive impedance, sometimes require specially designed switching amplifier.

There are also valves designed speaker (so that the compressed air from the air tank and flows through the horn sound), induction type, friction-type heat, and a thin film type and the like formal commercialization. Dutch Philips has introduced a MFB speaker, speaker box with a feedback amplifier and initiative component, the amplifier’s feedback loop extends to the speaker voice coil. Philips products without success, collision Infinity, Genisis and other manufacturers inspiration, the bass part in the manufacture of a servo amplifier, reducing bass distortion.

4, sound principles

is actually a speaker converts electrical energy into a sound converting apparatus, when the electron energy spread in different coils, a coil species interact with the magnetic field energy of the magnet, this interaction causes the tray vibrates, the electron energy change at any time, a coil horn can forward or backward movement of the tray so the horn will follow the movement, which makes the operation of this air sparse adhesion degree of a difference generated sound.

5, sound pattern


1, the moving coil. The basic principleSince Fleming’s left hand rule, a current of the magnetic field lines perpendicular to the wires into between the magnet poles, said line will move by interaction with the magnetic field lines of both the current, in a diaphragm attached to the root channel line, with current change before and after the movement of the diaphragm is generated. Currently more than ninety percent are single cone moving coil design.

2, electromagnetic. In the middle of a U-shaped magnet erection movable iron piece chopper (armature), when current flows through the armature coil magnetizing the magnets will be affected by the suction phenomenon repellent and simultaneously driven motion of the diaphragm. This design low cost but to little avail, so much used in telephone handsets and mini headphones.

3, inductive. Similar to the electromagnetic principle, but doubling the armature, the magnet coil and two asymmetrical, when a signal for the armature current is passed through two different flux motion will push each other. Different electromagnetic inductance can be regenerated at lower frequencies, but the efficiency is very low.

4, electrostatic. The basic principle is the Coulomb (Coulomb)’s law, usually plastic film plus a qualitative inductive material such as aluminum vacuum evaporation process, two diaphragms placed face to face, wherein when a high voltage other sheet with a forward current is induced a small current, attracted by each other’s repulsion pushes air can sound. Electrostatic monomers are light weight and dispersed small vibration, it is easy to get clear and transparent treble, bass dynamic skills needed, but it is not efficient, and easy to use the original DC gather dust. Currently vendors such as Martin-Logan has successfully developed a hybrid static and dynamic speaker, to solve the problem of insufficient electrostatic bass body, using electrostatic also very widely on the headphones.


5, planar. First developed by the Japanese SONY design, voice coil design is still moving coil theme, but the cone diaphragm into a flat diaphragm honeycomb structure, because few people empty effect, characteristics are excellent, but the efficiency is low .
6, ribbon type. No conventional voice coil design, the diaphragm is made of very thin metal, the current flows directly into the path body so as to pronounce vibration. Since it is a voice coil diaphragm, so the quality is very light, very good transient response, it is also very good high frequency response. However ribbon horn efficiency and low impedance amplifier has been a great challenge, Apogee be represented. Another way is to have a voice coil, the voice coil is directly printed on plastic sheets, which can partially solve the problem of low impedance, Magnepang such a design leader.

7, horn. Push the diaphragm is located in the bottom air horn to work, because they are not very efficient when it is diffused sound transmission, but because of the length of the horn will affect the shape of the tone, the low frequency is not so easy to be replayed, now mostly used in the PA system or giant the tweeter, the United States is honored Klipsch horn speaker manufacturers.

8, there are other Dr. Hale in 1973 developed an improved ribbon-style design, called Hale speaker, theoretically very good, very few people in Argentina. Piezoelectric titanate using a piezoelectric material, a voltage so that extension or contraction of the pronunciations design, Pioneer once modified high polymer piezoelectric design, used on their tweeter. Ion horn (the Ion) is a high pressure discharge air to become charged substance stopper, subjected to free these molecules will be charged due to vibration after the utterance AC voltage, the current can only be used in the above high-frequency monomers. Philips has also developed active feedback Speaker (MFB), there is an active feedback circuit built-in speaker, you can significantly reduce distortion.

6, Faulty


1, long overload driving the speaker, the speaker will overheat and burn the horn , because the temperature of the coil increases, so that some part of the structure on melting, burning or rupture, at normal temperature there is a coil 180 degrees Celsius, do not under normal use can imagine!

2, mechanical failure, overload driving the speaker so that the tray moving out of range and separated and the coil, or the coil holder and the coil separator, the speaker support ring or tray flange is torn, any of the above scenario in the event, the speakers can malfunction. When torn edge or support ring, and their friction coils will, as the tray assembly can not be properly suspended in the center position, a small rupture may feel it started, but after a period of time, when the crack becomes large, The speaker will follow bad.

3, horn failure may also be incorporated in two or more ways, such as a large output amplifier sudden temporal energy, the energy may be large sound suddenly opened, the horn will have a strong vibration, such that the magnetic gap from the coil, it back when the eccentric error can not be possible back into place, so will the position of the entire paper machine operation is dribbling forward, deviate from the original stay, the results can not sound the tray, However loudspeaker coil energy transfer continues, dual coil magnetic gap left, because the magnetic force of the coil gaps are best thermal environment, but has left the coil magnetic gap, the coil continues to receive the signal from the amplifier, the coil and soon it will lead to burning heat coil.

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